Operating System is a way of communication of user and system on the computer. That’s managing the user activity in the computer system. That’s also helpful to direct interaction between software and hardware through a remote.
The OS maintains the system application like games application and system software like command prompt on a desktop.
Operating System Tutorial
OS is a software that performs all the works like file management, memory management, process management, handling input and output and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers.
Some popular OS includes the Linux OS, Windows OS, VMS, OS/400, AIX, Z/OS, etc.
The OS is a program that acts as an interface between the user and the computer hardware and controls the execution of all kinds of programs.
The important functions of Operating systems.
- memory management
- processor management
- device management
- file management
- control over system performance
- job accounting
- error detecting aids
- coordination between user and software
Memory management refers to the management of primary memory like ROM (Read Only Memory) and Main memory like RAM (Read Access Memory). RAM is a large array of words or bytes where each word or byte has its address.
RAM provides fast storage that can be accessed directly by the Control Processing Unit. For a program to be executed, it must be in RAM.
An OS does the following memory management activities.
- Keeps RAM tracks, for ex: what part of it is in use by whom, what part is not in use.
- In multiprogramming, The Operating System will get memory when and how much.
- Memory Allocation, when a process requests it to do so.
- Memory DeAllocation, when a process no longer needs it or has been terminated.
In MultiProgramming OS, that decides which process gets the processor when and how much time. This work called “Process Scheduling“.
The file system is normally organized into directories for easy navigation and usage. That directory may contain files and other directions in the system.
The Operating System follows this activity for file management.
keeps tracks the information, uses, location, status, etc. This is called as “File System“.
The file represents the collections of related information. The system can store files on a disk for long-term storage purposes.
For Example- storage media include magnetic tape, magnetic disk, and optical disk driver like Compact Disk (CD), Digital Versatile Disc (DVD).
Each media has own properties like speed, capacity, data transfer rate, and data access methods, etc.
Important Other OS Activities
Security– Its password and other techniques, it prevents unauthorized access to programs and data.
Computer System having concurrent execution of multiple processes. that’s the process that may have protected from each other activities.
Security refers to mechanisms to control ways of program, process, or users to resources. that’s defined by the system.
You can follow these activities of the Operating System to security.
- The OS ensures access to resources to be controlled.
- The I/O devices are secured from invalid access attempts
- OS provides authentication features for each user with a password.
Control Over System Performance– Recording delays between the request for a service and response from the system.
Accounting Works– keeping the time tracking and resources used by various works and users.
Error detecting– for dumb production, traces, error messages, and other debugging and error detecting.
Coordination with software and users– coordination and assignments of compilation, interpretation, assemblers, and other software to the variety of computer systems.
Operating System Types
Serial Processing Operating System
The serial processing OS that performs all the computer instruction in a sequence manner. that is given by the user will be executed bu using FIFO manner (First In First Out).
Batch Processing Operating System
The Batch processing OS is similarly as serial processing OS. But It is firstly prepared and then data stored in a particular location. It’s waste many of time while preparation.
The Batch operating system can not communicate with the computer directly. each work is done by an off-line device like punch cards. It submits that to the computer operator.
Batch Operating System similar to speed up processing, work with similar needs, and executed group.
The programmers can leave the program with the operator and sorts the program with similar needs into the batch.
The following Batch OS Problems
- lack of interaction between the user with work.
- Control Processing Unit is getting idle. Because the mechanical I/O device speed is slower than the CPU.
- difficult to provide the desired priority.
Network Operating System
The Network OS runs on a web server and provides the server capability to manage data, users, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions.
In-Network OS The primary purpose to allow shared file and printer access among multiple computers in a network. like a local area network (LAN), It’s a private network to other networks.
Network OS includes Microsoft windows server 2003, Microsoft windows server 2008, UNIX, Linux, Mac OS X, Novell Netware, and BSD.
You can see here the Advantages of Network Operating system.
- Centralized servers are highly stable.
- security is a server managed.
- upgrade to new technology and software can be easily integrated into the system.
- The server is accessed remotely. It is possible from different locations and types of systems.
- the high cost of buying and running the server.
- dependency on a central location for most operations.
- regular maintenance and update required.
Real-Time Operating System
This OS, A real-time Operating system is defined for the data processing system. in which the time interval required to process and respond to the input controller.
The time is carried by the system is to respond to input and display of required information. that is termed as the response time. So, in this method, the response time is very slow as compared to online processing.
The real-time operating system is used when there are rigid time requirements on the operation of a processor.
That’s must be well-defined, fixed time constraints. otherwise, the system will fail. Like scientific experiments, medical imaging systems, individual control systems, weapon systems, robots, air traffic control systems, etc.
The real-time operating system has consisted of two like
Hard Real-Time OS
This OS, That’s used to complete critical tasks on time. The hard real-time OS, secondary storage is missing or limited data store in Read-Only Memory (ROM). In this, the virtual memory is never founded ever.
Soft Real-Time OS
This OS, That’s less restrictive. the critical tasks take priority over the other tasks and retains the priority until it completes. the soft real-time OS has limited utility than a hard real-time operating system.
like multimedia, virtual reality, advanced scientific projects like undersea exploration and planetary rovers, etc.
Time-sharing Operating System
The Time-sharing operating system is a technique. That enables may people’s located at various terminals.
That’s is a logical extension of multiprogramming. Processor time is shared among multiple users simultaneously is termed as time-sharing.
The major difference of multi-programmed batch OS and Time-sharing OS. in that case. the objective is to maximize processor use, whereas in time-sharing systems is to minimize the response time.
Multiple works are executed by the control processing unit CPU by switching between them. But the switches occur so frequently. Therefore, the user can be received a fast response.
While transaction processing, the processor executes each user program in a short burst or quantum of computation.
That is, if the number of users is present, each user can get quantum time at that time. When the user submits the command, the response time is in a few seconds at most.
The OS uses CPU scheduling and multiprogramming to provide each user with a small portion of the time. computer systems were designed primarily as batch systems have been modified to time-sharing OS.
The advantages of Timesharing OS are as follows as below.
- Provides the quick response
- Avoids the software duplication
- Reduce idle time of Control Processing Unit CPU
The disadvantages of Time-sharing OS are given below
- Reliability Problem
- Security question and integrity of user programs data
- Data communication problem
Distributed Operating System
This Os, we can maintain the system in another place or we can say that we can handle one computer on another computer.
Distributed OS uses multiple central processors to serve multiple real-time applications and multiple users. Data processing works are distributed among the processors.
The processors can interact with one another through various communication lines like high-speed buses or telephone lines.
The Distributed OS, which is a collection of processors. that do not share a memory, peripheral devices, or a clock.
The OS manages communications between all the processes. like multiple process communication with others through communication lines in the network.
These are referred to as loosely coupled systems or distributed systems. Processors may have variations in size and function in a distributed os. That processor is referred to sites, nodes, computers, etc.
The Distributed OS advantages are as follows as below.
- Resources sharing facility, a user may be able to use resources from one place to another place or one computer to another computer.
- increasing the speed and exchange the data through E-mail like Electronic Mail.
- If one computer fails in the distributed system, the remaining computer can potentially continue operating.
- Good service to the customers.
- Reduce the load time on the host computer.
Parallel Operating System
Parallel OS is used to the interface of the multiple networks in the computer to complete a task in parallel. It also allows to user to directly interface to all computing in the network.
The Operating System is important to manage all activities like file management, memory management, processor management, device management in mobile or computer.
That’s made easy the user activity on a desktop and maintain so far on. It’s a major part of any computer system or mobile system.
The Operating System is to manage the CPU (Control Processing Unit) works. whenever It is processing.
That’s also finding the error in the system and solve by the troubleshooting like Network Connection Error.
The Operating System handles the routing, connection, problem contention, security.
Errors can occur anytime and anywhere. that’s may have in CPU, I/O ( input/output ) devices or memory of hardware. you can see here the major activity of errors.
1) The Operating System check the possible errors
2) Os takes action to ensure correct and consistent computing.
The Input/output devices that are co-responding driver software. It hides the peculiarities of specific hardware devices from users.
OS manages the communication between the user and device drivers. The Operating System provides access to the required Input/output devices from the users.
Input/output operations read or write operation with any file or any specific Input/output devices.
The OS is handling the user when who’s perform many activities and display on a desktop.